What is an Endocrinologist?

Endocrinologists are specially trained physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. An expert is treating frequently complex conditions which involved several different systems within the human body. If a physician suspects there is a problem with a patient’s endocrine system, they will refer them to an endocrinologist.

Endocrine System & Diabetes

Endocrinologist

Endocrine System Animation

What is the endocrine system?

Endocrinologists are specially trained physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. An expert is treating frequently complex conditions which involved several different systems within the human body. If a physician suspects there is a problem with a patient’s endocrine system, they will refer them to an endocrinologist.

Pituitary Gland

Pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located behind the bridge of the nose and below the base of the brain. It is known as the master gland and considered the most important of the endocrine system because it secretes hormones that regulate the functions of other glands, growth and several body functions.

Thymus Gland

Thymus gland is an endocrine gland located beneath the sternum. T lymphocytes, types of immune cells, mature and multiply in the thymus gland early in life. After puberty the gland shrinks. The thymus gland plays a role in the body’s immune system.

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal glands or suprarenal glands are small glands sitting on top of the kidney in the deepest part of the abdomen. Adrenal glands are divided into 2 regions, the right gland is triangular while the left one is semilunar in shape corticosteroids and catecholamines. These glands secrete hormones that are released in response to stress, such as norepinephrine which triggers the fight or flight response and treats low blood pressure and heart failure and adrenaline or epinephrine which quickens the heartbeat, strengthens the heart’s contraction, opens the bronchioles in the lungs and can be used to raise a dropping blood pressure among many other things. The adrenal glands also produce androgens, the male sex hormones that promote the development of male characteristics such as testosterone. These glands produce aldosterone which affects kidney function.

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus is a part of the brain, it produces essential hormones to control different cells and organs. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system which enables the hypothalamus to play an important role in maintaining homeostasis.

Anterior Pituitary

The anterior pituitary helps regulate several physiological processes including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation. It secretes hormones that affect sexual development, thyroid function, growth, skin pigmentation, and adrenocortical function.

Ovaries & Testicles

The ovaries are the female gonads, located in the pelvic cavity. They are the organs that produce eggs and secrete estrogen and progesterone hormones; they are responsible for sexual development, fertility and healthy menstrual periods. The testicles are the male gonads, found outside the pelvic area. They are the organs that secrete androgens, mainly testosterone, that control sexual development, puberty, facial hair, sexual behavior, libido, erectile function, and the formation of sperm.

Thyroid Gland

Thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located just below the Adam’s apple; producing hormones that play a key role in regulating blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, metabolism, and the body’s reaction to other hormones. The thyroid gland uses iodine to manufacture hormones. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, which stimulates bone cells to add calcium to bone, as well as regulating calcium metabolism.

Parathyroid

Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands located in the neck behind the thyroid. They produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium in our blood and bones ( the most important element in our bodies) and phosphorous in the blood, blood clotting, and neuromuscular excitation.

Posterior Pituitary

The posterior pituitary gland is a part of the brain which secretes oxytocin, a hormone that raises uterine contractions as well as ADH (antidiuretic hormone) which prompts the kidneys to increase the absorption of water in the blood.

Pancreas

Pancreas is located in the abdomen, behind the stomach. The pancreas plays an important role in digestion and in regulating blood sugar. It is categorized as both a endocrine gland and a digestive organ. It produces insulin, somatostatin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin plays a key role in the metabolism of both carbohydrates and fat in the body. Somatostatin regulates endocrine and nervous system function; it prevents the secretion of several hormones, such as gastrin, insulin and growth hormone. Glucagon is a peptide hormone which raises blood glucose levels when they fall too low. Pancreatic polypeptide helps control the production of substances made by the pancreas. A peptide is a molecule that is made up of at least two amino acids.

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